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Sources used

The following references were consulted in the development of this information.

On this page:

If you have been recently diagnosed

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Macmillan Cancer Support. Symptoms and side effects: lymphoedema. http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Cancerinformation/Livingwithandaftercancer/Symptomssideeffects/Lymphoedema/Lymphoedema.aspx   (accessed 27 June 2014).

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Your family and friends

American Cancer Society. Telling your family and friends. http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/emotionalsideeffects/copingwithcancerineverydaylife/a-message-of-hope-telling-family-and-friends   (accessed 2 July 2014).

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Breast Cancer Care. Talking to teenagers. http://www.breastcancercare.org.uk/breast-cancer-information/impact-breast-cancer/relationships-family/telling%C2%A0family%C2%A0and%C2%A0friends/teenagers   (accessed 3 July 2014).

Cancer.net. Family life. http://www.cancer.net/coping-and-emotions/communicating-loved-ones/family-life   (accessed 3 July 2014).

Cancer.net. Talking to your teenager. http://www.cancer.net/coping-and-emotions/communicating-loved-ones/talking-about-cancer/talking-your-teenager   (accessed 3 July 2014).

Cancer Research UK. Talking to children. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-help/coping-with-cancer/coping-emotionally/talking-about-cancer/talking-to-children   (accessed 3 July 2014).

Cancer Research UK. Who to talk to. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-help/coping-with-cancer/coping-emotionally/talking-about-cancer/who-to-talk-to   (accessed 2 July 2014).

CLIC Sargent. Facing death and talking about it: A booklet to help young adults (pdf). 2011. http://www.nhs.uk/ipgmedia/national/clic%20sargent/assets/facingdeathandtalkingaboutit-17yearsofageclicsargent20pages.pdf   (accessed 3 July 2014).

CLIC Sargent. People in your life: Making sense of it all. pp30–43. 2012.

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Dying Matters. Time to say goodbye. http://dyingmatters.org/story/time-say-goodbye   (accessed 3 July 2014).

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Health talk online. Living with and beyond cancer: relationship with a spouse or partner. http://healthtalkonline.org/peoples-experiences/cancer/living-and-beyond-cancer/relationship-spouse-or-partner   (accessed 3 July 2014).

Health talk online. Talking to children. http://healthtalkonline.org/peoples-experiences/dying-bereavement/living-dying/talking-children   (accessed 3 July 2014).

Kuhl, D. Exploring the lived experience of having a terminal illness. Journal of Palliative Care. March 2011, vol./is. 27/1(43-52), 0825-8597, Spring 2011.

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Macmillan Cancer Support. Telling your children. http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Cancerinformation/Livingwithandaftercancer/Relationshipscommunication/Talkingtochildren/Tellingyourchildren.aspx   (accessed 3 July 2014).

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Your feelings

American Cancer Society. A message of hope – coping with emotions. http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/emotionalsideeffects/copingwithcancerineverydaylife/a-message-of-hope-coping-with-emotions   (accessed 2 July 2014).

Cancer Research UK. Coping practically – who can help? http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-help/coping-with-cancer/coping-practically/who-can-help  

Cancer Research UK. Managing your emotions. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-help/coping-with-cancer/coping-emotionally/cancer-and-your-emotions/managing-your-emotions   (accessed 2 July 2014).

Carter H, MacLeod R, Brander P, McPherson K. Living with a terminal illness: patients’ priorities. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Volume 45, Issue 6, pages 611–620. March 2004

Health talk online. Complementary and alternative approaches. http://healthtalkonline.org/peoples-experiences/dying-bereavement/living-dying/complementary-and-alternative-approaches (accessed 2 July 2014).

Health talk online. Support and counselling. http://healthtalkonline.org/peoples-experiences/dying-bereavement/living-dying/support-and-counselling   (accessed 2 July 2014).

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Macmillan Cancer Support. Physical activity and cancer treatment. 2011.

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NHS Choices. Coping with a terminal illness. http://www.nhs.uk/Planners/end-of-life-care/Pages/coping-with-a-terminal-illness.aspx   (accessed 2 July 2014).

Van Lander A, Gaucher J, Pereira B, Hermet R, Rhondali W. Distress and identity crisis at the end of life, a prospective observational study. Palliative Medicine. 2012. 26(4): 546.

Looking after your wellbeing

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NHS Choices. Vitamins and minerals http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vitamins-minerals/Pages/vitamins-minerals.aspx   (accessed 18 August 2014).

NHS Choices. Healthy eating self-assessment http://www.nhs.uk/Tools/Pages/HealthyEating.aspx   (accessed 18 August 2014).

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Plaskota M, Lucas C, Evans R, Cook K, Pizzoferro K, Saini T.  A hypnotherapy intervention for the treatment of anxiety in patients with cancer receiving palliative care. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2012 Feb. 18(2):69-75.

Rayner L, Price A, Evans A, Valsraj K, Hotopf M, Higginson IJ. Antidepressants for the treatment of depression in palliative care: systematic review and meta-analysis.  Palliat Med. 2011 Jan; 25(1):36-51. doi: 10.1177/0269216310380764. Epub 2010 Oct 8.

Relate. Relationship Counselling. http://www.relate.org.uk/relationship-help   (accessed 28 August 2014).

Relationships Scotland website. http://www.relationships-scotland.org.uk   (accessed 12 September 2014).

Romeo M., Conboy L.  Acupuncture for the treatment of patients in palliative care. Citation: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. July 2013, vol./is. 19/7(A20), 1075-5535. 

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Taylor B. ‘I don't want last time to be the last time’: the meaning of sex in life-limiting illness. Palliative Medicine. 2012; 26(4): 512-513

Vandergrift, Alison; MSW, RMT.  Use of complementary therapies in hospice and palliative care. Visiting Nurse Association of Central Connecticut, Inc. 2013.

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Planning ahead

Age UK. Advance decisions, advance statements and Living Wills, Factsheet 72 (pdf). 2014 http://www.ageuk.org.uk/Documents/EN-GB/Factsheets/FS72_Advance_decisions_advance_statements_and_living_wills_fcs.pdf?dtrk=true   (accessed 11 July 2014).

Age UK. Paying for permanent residential care. http://www.ageuk.org.uk/home-and-care/care-homes/paying-for-permanent-residential-care/   (accessed 30 June 2014).

Arranging a funeral. Planning your funeral in advance. http://www.arrangingafuneral.co.uk/advice/funeral-advice/planning-your-funeral-in-advance   (accessed 12 July 2014).

Cancer Research UK. Choosing where to die. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-help/coping-with-cancer/dying/decisions/choosing-where-to-die   (accessed 30 June 2014).

Cancer Research UK. Can I be an organ donor if I have cancer. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-help/about-cancer/cancer-questions/can-i-be-an-organ-donor-if-i-have-had-cancer   (accessed 4 July 2014).

Courts NI (2012) Fees of the Office of Care and Protection. https://www.courtsni.gov.uk/en-GB/Services/OCP/fees/Pages/default.aspx   (accessed 11 July 2014).

Department for Work and Pensions (2008) Agents, appointees and deputies guide, Part 8 [online] https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/procedures-for-dealing-with-agents-appointees-attorneys-deputies-and-third-parties   (accessed 11 July 2014).

Department for Constitutional Affairs (2007) Mental Capacity Code of Practice [online] https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/mental-capacity-act-code-of-practice   (accessed 11 July 2014).

Dying Matters. Organ Donation. http://dyingmatters.org/page/organ-donation   (accessed 4 July 2014).

Dying Matters. My Funeral Wishes. http://dyingmatters.org/page/my-funeral-wishes (accessed 12 July 2014).

Gerrard R, Campbell J, Minton O, Moback B, Skinner C, McGowan C, Stone PC. Achieving the preferred place of care for hospitalized patients at the end of life. Palliative Medicine. June 2011. vol./is. 25/4 (333-6), 0269-2163.

General Medical Council website. End of life care: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). http://www.gmc-uk.org/guidance/ethical_guidance/end_of_life_CPR_cardiopulmonary_resuscitation.asp (accessed 26 June 2014).

Gold Standards Framework. Gold standards framework. Advance care planning. http://www.goldstandardsframework.org.uk/advance-care-planning   (accessed 24 June 2014).

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Health talk online. Donating organs. healthtalkonline.org/peoples-experiences/dying-bereavement/living-dying/donating-organs   (accessed 4 July 2014).

Health talk online. Donating samples after death for research use. http://healthtalkonline.org/medical_research/Biobanking/Topic/4193   (accessed 4 July 2014).

Human Tissue Authority. Body, organ and tissue donation. http://www.hta.gov.uk/bodyorganandtissuedonation.cfm   (accessed 4 July 2014).

Justice.gov.uk. Mental Capacity Act 2005, sections 24-26. http://www.justice.gov.uk/protecting-the-vulnerable/mental-capacity-act   (accessed 11 July 2014).

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Macmillan Cancer Support. Rehoming your pet. http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Cancerinformation/Livingwithandaftercancer/Practicalissues/Petcare/Rehomingyourpet.aspx   (accessed 3 July 2014).

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Ministry of Justice. Organisations. Office of the Public Guardian. http://www.justice.gov.uk/about/opg   (accessed 24 June 2014).

National Council of Palliative Care. Planning your future care (pdf). http://www.ncpc.org.uk/sites/default/files/Planning%20for%20your%20future%20care%20updated%20March%202014%20FINAL.pdf   (accessed 3 September 2014).

The National End of Life Care Programme. Capacity, care planning and advance care planning in life limiting illness: A guide for health and social care staff. 2011.

NHS Choices. Carers and end of life care. http://www.nhs.uk/CarersDirect/guide/bereavement/Pages/Overview.aspx   (accessed 30 June 2014).

NHS Choices. Health A-Z. End of life care. Planning ahead. Advance decision. http://www.nhs.uk/Planners/end-of-life-care/Pages/advance-decision-to-refuse-treatment.aspx   (accessed 24 June 2014).

NHS Choices. NHS Continuing Care. http://www.nhs.uk/CarersDirect/guide/practicalsupport/Pages/NHSContinuingCare.aspx   (accessed 12 September 2014).

NHS Choices. What is end of life care? http://www.nhs.uk/Planners/end-of-life-care/Pages/what-is-end-of-life-care.aspx   (accessed 30 June 2014).

NHS Choices. Organ donation: an introduction. http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Organ-donation/Pages/Introduction.aspx   (accessed 4 July 2014)

NHS Improving Quality. Planning for your future: A guide (pdf). 2014. http://www.nhs.uk/Planners/end-of-life-care/Documents/Planning-for-your-future-care.pdf    (accessed 24 June 2014).

Northern Ireland Courts and Tribunals Service website. Services. Office of Care and Protection (Patients section). Information on Enduring Powers of Attorney. https://www.courtsni.gov.uk/en-GB/Services/OCP/EPA/Pages/default.aspx   (accessed 24 June 2014).

Office of the Public Guardian (Scotland) website. What we do. Power of attorney. http://www.publicguardian-scotland.gov.uk/whatwedo/power_of_attorney.asp   (accessed 4 June 2014).

Office of the Public Guardian. Power of Attorney fees. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/power-of-attorney-fees   (accessed 11 July 2014).

Office of the Public Guardian (Scotland). Fees. http://www.publicguardian-scotland.gov.uk/whatwedo/fees.asp   (accessed 11 July 2014).

Organ Donation. Organ and tissue donation: your questions answered. http://www.organdonation.nhs.uk/how_to_become_a_donor/questions/index.asp   (accessed 4 July 2014).

Pet Rescue (Australia).  I need to rehome my pet. http://www.petrescue.com.au/library/articles/help-i-need-to-rehome-my-pet   (accessed 3 July 2014).

Royal College of Physicians. Concise guidance to good practice: a series of evidence-based guidelines for clinical management. Number 12: Advance care planning. National guidelines. 2009.

St Christopher’s Hospice. End of life care information: where can care be delivered? http://endoflifecareinformation.stchristophers.org.uk/what-to-expect/where-can-care-be-delivered   (accessed 30 June 2014).

Sue Ryder. What we do: care services. http://www.sueryder.org/What-we-do/Care-services   (accessed 30 June 2014).

The Scottish Government. Publications. 2010. April. Anticipatory Care Planning: Frequently asked questions. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/04/13104128/1   (accessed 24/6/13).

York Teaching Hospital. Advance Care Plan template (pdf) http://www.yacpalliativecare.co.uk/documents/download128.pdf   (accessed 3/9/14).

Preparing for end of life

Association of Palliative Care Social Workers. 2013. The role of specialist palliative care social workers. http://www.apcsw.org.uk/role-of-the-palliative-care-social-worker.html   (accessed July 2014).

Barnes H, McDonald J, Smallwood N, Manser R. Opioids for the palliation of refractory breathlessness in adults with advanced disease and terminal illness (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2014, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD011008. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011008.

Boston P, Bruce A, Schreiber R. Existential suffering in the palliative care setting: an integrated literature review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2011 Mar;41(3):604-18.

Brown MA, Sampson EL, Jones L, Barron AM. Prognostic indicators of 6-month mortality in elderly people with advanced dementia: a systematic review. Palliat Med. 2013 May;27(5):389-400. 

Cancer Research UK. 2014. What happens in the final days of life. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-help/coping-with-cancer/dying/what-happens-in-the-final-days-of-life   (accessed June 2014).

Candy B, Jackson KC, Jones L, Leurent B, Tookman A, King M. Drug therapy for delirium in terminally ill adult patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD004770. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. CD004770.pub2

Chirco, N., Dunn, K. S., & Robinson, S. G The trajectory of terminal delirium at the end of life. American journal of hospice & palliative care. 2010; 28(1), 44-51.

Dev R, Dalal S, Bruera E. Is there a role for parenteral nutrition or hydration at the end of life? Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2012; 6(3):365-70.

Department of Health. 2008. End of Life Care Strategy: Promoting high quality care for all adults at the end of life (pdf). https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/136431/End_of_life_strategy.pdf   (accessed July 2014).

College of Occupational Therapists and NHS National End of Life Care Programme. The route to success in end of life care – achieving quality for occupational therapy. www.nhsiq.nhs.uk/download.ashx?mid=8186&nid=8185   (accessed July 2014).

Faull C, Nicholson A. Terminal care and dying. In: Faull C, de Caestecker C, Nicholson A, Black F (eds). Handbook of palliative care. Third edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p 295 – 313. ISBN: 978-1-118-06559-4.

General Medical Council. 2010. Treatment and care decisions towards the end of life: good practice in decision making (pdf). http://www.gmc-uk.org/static/documents/content/Treatment_and_care_towards_the_end_of_life_-_English_0414.pdf   (accessed June 2014).

Gomes B, Calanzani N, Curiale V, McCrone P, Higginson IJ. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of home palliative care services for adults with advanced illness and their caregivers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD007760. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007760.pub2. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007760.pub2/full   (accessed July 2014).

GOV.UK. What to do after someone dies. https://www.gov.uk/after-a-death   (accessed July 2014).

Help the Hospices. 2011. What is hospice care? Answering questions about hospice care (pdf) http://www.helpthehospices.org.uk/media-centre/what-is-hospice-care/   (accessed July 2014).

Hospice Foundation of America. Signs of approaching death (end of life). 2014. http://www.hospicefoundation.org/deathsigns   (accessed July 2014).

Hosie A, Davidson PM, Agar M, Sanderson CR, Phillips J. Delirium prevalence, incidence, and implications for screening in specialist palliative care inpatient settings: a systematic review. Palliat Med. 2013 Jun;27(6):486-98.

Kehl KA, Kowalkowski JA. A systematic review of the prevalence of signs of impending death and symptoms in the last 2 weeks of life. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2013;30(6):601-16.

Leadership Alliance for the Care of Dying People. 2014. One chance to get it right: Improving peoples’ experience of care in the last few days and hours of life (pdf). https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/323188/One_chance_to_get_it_right.pdf   (accessed June 2014).

Maltoni M, Scarpi E, Rosati M, Derni S, Fabbri L, Martini F, Amadori D, Nanni  O. Palliative sedation in end-of-life care and survival: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Apr 20;30(12):1378-83.

National Institute for Clinical Excellence. 2011. Quality standard for end of life care for adults. QS 13. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/QS13/chapter/Quality-statement-6-Holistic-support-spiritual-and-religious   (accessed June 2014).

National Institute for Clinical Excellence. 2011. Information for adults who use NHS end of life care services and their families and carers http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs13/resources/qs13-end-of-life-care-for-adults-information-for-the-public3   (accessed July 2014).

NHS Careers. Healthcare assistant. http://www.nhscareers.nhs.uk/explore-by-career/wider-healthcare-team/careers-in-the-wider-healthcare-team/clinical-support-staff/healthcare-assistant/   (accessed July 2014).

NHS Careers. Chaplains. http://www.nhscareers.nhs.uk/explore-by-career/wider-healthcare-team/careers-in-the-wider-healthcare-team/corporate-services/chaplain/   (accessed July 2014).

NHS Inform (NHS Scotland). 2012. What is dying like? Breathing. http://www.nhsinform.co.uk/PalliativeCare/deathandbereavement/whatisdyinglike/breathing   (accessed July 2014).

NHS Inform (NHS Scotland). 2012. What is dying like? Coma. http://www.nhsinform.co.uk/PalliativeCare/deathandbereavement/whatisdyinglike/finalmoments   (accessed July 2014).

NHS Inform (NHS Scotland). 2012. What is dying like? Final moments of life. http://www.nhsinform.co.uk/PalliativeCare/deathandbereavement/whatisdyinglike/finalmoments   (accessed July 2014). 

NHS Medical Careers. Palliative medicine. https://www.medicalcareers.nhs.uk/specialty_pages/medicine/palliative_medicine.aspx   (accessed July 2014).

Patient UK. 2011. Death (recognition and certification). http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/Death-(Recognition-and-Certification).htm   (accessed July 2014).

Royal College of Nursing, 2011. Palliative care nurse (fact sheet 27) (pdf). http://www.rcn.org.uk/downloads/support_for_you/member_support_services_-_factsheets/career_guidance_-_profiles/Palliative_care.pdf   (accessed July 2014).

Royal College of General Practitioners. RCGP curriculum 2010, revised 14 August 2013: Statement 3.09 end-of-life care. http://www.rcgp.org.uk/~/media/Files/GP-training-and-exams/Curriculum-2012/RCGP-Curriculum-3-09-End-Of-Life-Care.ashx   (accessed July 2014).

Salter P. Chaplaincy in end of life care. Health Service Journal, 20 September 2012. http://www.hsj.co.uk/resource-centre/best-practice/care-pathway-resources/chaplaincy-in-end-of-life-care/5048970.article#.U7bbx6jx9Zg   (accessed July 2014).

Social Care Institute for Excellence. 2013. Dying well at home: Research evidence (pdf). http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/guides/guide48/files/guide48_researchevidence.pdf   (accessed July 2014).

Managing pain

Bricker, Lee A, Kinzbrunner, Barry M, Kavanaugh, Kevin J, Greydanus, Donald E. Nutrients and fluids at the end of life: Physiological and ethical guideposts over uncertain terrain. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development, July 2012, vol./is. 5/3(265-282), 1939-5965 (Jul-Sep 2012).

Anderson BA1, Kralik D.  Palliative care at home: carers and medication management. Palliat Support Care. 2008 Dec;6(4):349-56. doi: 10.1017/S1478951508000552.

Maltoni M, Scarpi E, Rosati M, Derni S, Fabbri L, Martini F, Amadori D, Nanni O. Palliative Sedation in End-of-Life Care and Survival: A Systematic Review. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20 April 2012, vol./is. 30/12(1378-1383), 0732183X.

Birocco N1, Guillame C, Storto S, Ritorto G, Catino C, Gir N, Balestra L, Tealdi G, Orecchia C, Vito GD, Giaretto L, Donadio M, Bertetto O, Schena M, Ciuffreda L. The effects of Reiki therapy on pain and anxiety in patients attending a day oncology and infusion services unit. J Palliat Med. 2013 Oct;16(10):1294-8. doi: 10.1089/jpm.2013.0295. 

Cervero, Fernando. Visceral Pain. Wellcome Trust.  http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/en/pain/microsite/science3.html   (accessed 3 September 2014).

Gutgsell KJ1, Schluchter M, Margevicius S, DeGolia PA, McLaughlin B, Harris M, Mecklenburg J, Wiencek C. Music therapy reduces pain in palliative care patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2013;45:822-831.

Jørgensen L1, Nielsen LM, Kisling AK, Jensen NH, Eriksen J. Ugeskr Laeger. Transcutaneous nerve stimulation as palliative treatment of pain (trans. from Danish). PubMed. 18 June 1990. 

Garcia M.K.; Driver L.; Haddad R.; Lee R.; Palmer J.L.; Wei Q.; Frenkel M.; Cohen L. Acupuncture for treatment of uncontrolled pain in cancer patients: A pragmatic pilot study.Integrative Cancer Therapies 2014; 13(2): 133-140.

Dougherty L, Lister S. The Royal Marsden Hospital Manual of Clinical Nursing Procedures. 8th Edition http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-144433509X.html   (accessed July 2011).

NHS Choices. Managing pain and other symptoms http://www.nhs.uk/Planners/end-of-life-care/Pages/controlling-pain-and-other-symptoms.aspx   (accessed 20 August 2014).

Palliativedrugs.com. Patient information leaflet: Syringe drivers (pdf). http://www.palliativedrugs.com/download/Patient%20Information%20Leaflet.pdf   (accessed 22 August 2014).

Vandergrift, A. Use of complementary therapies in hospice and palliative care. Omega (Westport). 2013;67(1-2):227-32.

Symptoms and symptom management

Bookbinder M and McHugh ME. Symptom management in palliative and end of life care. Nursing Clinics of North America. 2010; 45(3):271-327.

Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. Patient Information. Palliative Care Team, Breathlessness Intervention Service. Factsheet two: Breathing methods and positions to ease breathlessness (pdf). 2011 http://www.cuh.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/PIN0735_fact_sheet_two_breathing_methods_and_positions_to_ease_breathlessness.pdf   (accessed 13 June 2014).

Cancer Research UK. Chronic constipation http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-help/coping-with-cancer/coping-physically/bowel/types/other/chronic-constipation   (accessed 7 August 2014).

Cancer Research UK. Cancer Help. Coping with cancer. Coping physically. Fluid in the abdomen. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-help/coping-with-cancer/coping-physically/fluid-in-the-abdomen-ascites/about-fluid-in-abdomen   (accessed 19 June 2014).

Cancer Research UK. Types of infection http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/coping-with-cancer/coping-physically/fever/cause/infection/types-of-infections   (accessed 17 September 2014).

Chatterjee J. Improving pain assessment for patients with cognitive impairment: Development of a pain assessment toolkit. International Journal of Palliative Nursing. 2012; 18(12):581-590.

Greater Manchester & Cheshire Cancer Network. Pain & Symptom Control Guidelines. Palliative care. 2011.

Gunnarsson AK1, Lönn K, Gunningberg L. Does nutritional intervention for patients with hip fractures reduce postoperative complications and improve rehabilitation? J Clin Nurs. 2009. 

Hospitalbeds.org.uk http://hospitalbeds.org.uk/shop.html   (accessed 11 August 2014).

Jordhoy MS, Ringdal GI, Helbostad JL et al. Assessing physical functioning: A systematic review of quality of life measures developed for use in palliative care. Palliative Medicine. 2007. 21(8):673-682.

Kasven-Gonzalez, N., Souverain, R., Miale S. Improving quality of life through rehabilitation in palliative care.  A case report.  Palliative & Supportive Care. 8 (3) pp. 359-69. 2010.

Kegels, F. Clinical evaluation of honey-based products for lower extremity wounds in a home care setting. Wounds UK. June 2011, vol./is. 7/2(46-53), 1746-6814.

Macmillan Cancer Support. Cancer information. Changes to skin. http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Cancerinformation/Livingwithandaftercancer/Symptomssideeffects/Visiblesideeffects/Feel-good/Changestoskin.aspx   (accessed 26 June 2014).

Macmillan Cancer Support and Marie Curie Cancer Care. End of Life: The Facts. A booklet for people in the final stages of life, and their carers. 2013.

Macmillan Cancer Support. Cancer information. Changes to bladder function. http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Cancerinformation/Livingwithandaftercancer/Lifeaftercancer/Lateeffectsbowel/Possiblelateeffects/Changestobladderfunction.aspx   (accessed 18 June 2014).

Macmillan Cancer Support. Cancer information. Mild cognitive impairment. http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Cancerinformation/Livingwithandaftercancer/Symptomssideeffects/Othersymptomssideeffects/MildcognitiveimpairmentMCI.aspx   (accessed 26 June 2014).

Macmillan Cancer Support. The last few weeks of life. http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Cancerinformation/Endoflife/Thelastfewweeks.aspx   (accessed 19 June 2014).

Macmillan Cancer Support. Cancer information. Ascites. http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Cancerinformation/Livingwithandaftercancer/Symptomssideeffects/Othersymptomssideeffects/Ascites.aspx   (accessed 19 June 2014).

Macmillan Cancer Support. Cancer information. Avoiding infection when you have reduced immunity. http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Cancerinformation/Livingwithandaftercancer/Symptomssideeffects/Othersymptomssideeffects/AvoidingInfection.aspx   (accessed 19 June 2014).

MedlinePlus. Intestinal obstruction. www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000260.htm   (accessed 27 June 2014).

NHS Choices. End of life care: Your wellbeing. http://www.nhs.uk/Planners/end-of-life-care/Pages/changes-in-the-last-hours-and-days.aspx   (accessed 16 June 2014).

NHS Choices. Food safety http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Homehygiene/Pages/Homehygienehub.aspx   (accessed 17 September 2014).

NHS Choices. Health A-Z. Corticosteroids. Side effects. http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Corticosteroid-(drugs)/Pages/Sideeffects.aspx   (accessed 26 June 2014).

NHS Choices. Health A-Z. Diarrhoea. http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/diarrhoea/pages/introduction.aspx   (accessed 18 June 2014).

NHS Choices. Health A-Z. Oedema. http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/oedema/Pages/Introduction.aspx   (accessed 19 June 2014).

NHS Scotland. Palliative Care Guidelines. Patient information: Managing a poor appetite. 2012.

NHS Scotland. Palliative Care Guidelines. Patient information: Managing constipation. 2012.

NHS Scotland. Palliative Care Guidelines. Patient information: What happens when someone is dying. 2013. 

NHS Scotland. Palliative Care Guidelines. Symptom control – bowel obstruction (pdf). 2013. http://www.palliativecareguidelines.scot.nhs.uk/documents/BowelObstruction.pdf   (accessed 18 June 2014).

NHS Scotland. Palliative Care Guidelines. Symptom control – breathlessness (pdf). 2013.  http://www.palliativecareguidelines.scot.nhs.uk/documents/breathlessnessfinal.pdf   (accessed 13 June 2014).

NHS Scotland. Palliative Care Guidelines. Symptom control – depression (pdf). 2013. http://www.palliativecareguidelines.scot.nhs.uk/documents/Depressionfinal.pdf   (accessed 25 June 2014).

NHS Scotland. Palliative Care Guidelines. Symptom control – nausea / vomiting (pdf). 2013. http://www.palliativecareguidelines.scot.nhs.uk/documents/NauseaVomiting.pdf   (Accessed 17 June 2014).

NHS Scotland. Palliative Care Guidelines. Symptom control – mouth care (pdf). 2013. http://www.palliativecareguidelines.scot.nhs.uk/documents/Mouthcarefinal.pdf   (accessed 13 June 2014).

NHS Scotland. Palliative Care Guidelines. Patient information. Managing a sore and dry mouth (pdf). 2012. http://www.palliativecareguidelines.scot.nhs.uk/documents/Managing%20a%20sore%20and%20dry%20mouth.pdf   (accessed 13 June 2014).

NHS Scotland. Palliative Care Guidelines. Symptom control – fatigue. 2013. http://www.palliativecareguidelines.scot.nhs.uk/documents/Fatigue.pdf   (accessed 12 June 2014).

NHS Scotland. Palliative Care Guidelines. Patient information: Managing fatigue (pdf). 2012. http://www.palliativecareguidelines.scot.nhs.uk/documents/Fatigueleaflet.pdf   (accessed 13 June 2014).

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National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Rehabilitation after critical illness. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg83   (accessed 13 August 2014).

National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Palliative Cancer Care – Oral. 2012. cks.nice.org.uk   (accessed 29 July 2014).

Ostgathe C, Gaertner J and Voltz R. Cognitive failure in end of life. Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care.  2008; 2(3): 187-191.

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Patient.co.uk. Professional reference. Delirium. http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/delirium   (accessed 25 June 2014).

Patient.co.uk. Professional reference. Mild cognitive impairment. http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/mild-cognitive-impairment   (accessed 26 June 2014).

Payne C, Wiffen PJ and Martin S. Interventions for fatigue and weight loss in adults with advanced progressive illness. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012; Issue 1.

Price MA, Bell ML, Sommeijer DW et al. Physical symptoms, coping styles and quality of life in recurrent ovarian cancer: A prospective population-based study over the last year of life. Gynecologic Oncology. 2013; 130:162-168.

Quinn, Barry. Oral care for cancer and palliative patients. British Journal of Nursing 22 (10) pp S14. 2013.

Ross DD and Alexander CS. Management of common symptoms in terminally ill patients: Part I. Fatigue, anorexia, cachexia, nausea and vomiting. American Family Physician. 2001; 64(5): 807-14.

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